Cell Fusion Mediated Cell Reprogramming

Cell fusion is one of several ways to restore differentiated cells to a pluripotent state. Creative Bioarray is focused on developing techniques for cell fusion mediated pluripotency restoration in vitro, providing an important experimental tool for researchers to examine the pathways of cell transformation, genome re-purposing and locus reactivation, which can be imitated for treatment.

Cell Fusion Mediated Cell Reprogramming

Recently, adult rhesus macaque somatic cells were successfully reprogrammed into pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by modifying existing SCNT protocols. These ESCs exhibited normal ESC morphology and differentiated into multiple cell types in vivo and in vitro. These studies confirm the ability of SCNT to reprogram somatic cells. However, the success rate of mammalian cloning by SCNT is very low (3-5%), therefore, different reprogramming techniques have been used, such as fusion between somatic cells and pluripotent stem cells.

Cell-cell fusion was used to investigate nuclear reprogramming as early as the 1970s. For example, the hybrid cells generated by the fusion of mouse embryonic carcinoma cells (ECCS) and primary thymocytes showed the characteristics of pluripotent carcinoma cells. Recently, different types of somatic cells were fused with ESCs in several studies and both mouse (mESCs) and human (hESCs) ESCs were shown to have the ability to reprogram somatic cells. In addition, the fusion between specific cells can result in the formation of hybrids that acquire one of two different phenotypes, for example, by fusing mouse muscle cells with human primary diploid cells from many different embryonic lineages.

Fig 1. The cell–cell fusion system.Fig.1 The cell–cell fusion system. (Brown, 2021)

Our Technology

Creative Bioarray realizes two major types of reprogramming by providing cell fusion mediated cell reprogramming technology: (i) reprogramming differentiated cells into pluripotent stem cells; (ii) lineage reprogramming of differentiated cells into diverse differentiated cells. Somatic cells can be fused by chemical fusion, biological fusion or electrofusion to produce pluripotent cells and hybrid cells. We mainly produce pluripotent cells from somatic cells through the following strategies:

  • Fusion of somatic cells with ECCs
  • Fusion of somatic cells with ESCs
  • Fusion of somatic cells with embryonic germ cell (EGCs)
  • Lineage reprogramming by cell fusion


  • Cell-cell fusion is a tractable system that can be used to research the earliest events in lineage reprogramming.
  • Short time-consuming, able to activate pluripotency genes in 1-2 d, and has high reprogramming efficiency.
  • The resulting findings may allow the development of new therapies for regenerative medicine.

With an advanced platform and professional researchers, Creative Bioarray offers cell fusion methods to assist our clients in achieving human adult cell reprogramming. Our efficient experimental protocols will greatly accelerate your research. Please contact us directly if you are interested in this technology.


  1. Brown, K.E.; Fisher, A.G. Reprogramming lineage identity through cell–cell fusion. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 2021, 70: 15-23.
  2. Sanges, D. et al. Cell-fusion-mediated reprogramming: pluripotency or transdifferentiation? Implications for regenerative medicine. Cell Fusion in Health and Disease. 2011: 137-159.
For Research Use Only. Not For Clinical Use.